Martial Arts do - the long way of the fighting styles


Aikido is a martial art including circular advances and evasions. It makes use of a set of movements starting from a particular posture (tai sabaki) to blend with the attacker (uke).

There are 15 basic forms with 3,000 known variations.

The techniques are carried by by standing opposite the opponent (omote) or behind him (ura).

Because hips represent the gravity center of a standing person, their movements (koshi) are used to approach (irimi) or to turn (tenkan). All movements have a irimi-tenkan combination.

As in Japan people tend to sit not on chairs but on tatami, techniques were provided against attacks on this position.

Three fighting situations are practiced:

  • Suwari waza  –  practitioners apply the techniques in the sitting position, moving the knees.

  • Handachi Hanmi  –  the attacker is standing and the defender is sitting.

  • Tachi waza  –  two or more practitioners are in upright position.

There are five fundamental principles which represent the basis of the traditional teaching of Aikido:

  • Ikkyo  –  An armlock to bring uke to the ground by controlling the wrist and by causing an circular arc at the elbow directed towards the head.

  • Nikyo  –  A subtle variation on Ikkyo intended to break the resistance of an insufficiently unbalanced uke.

  • Sankyo  –  It relies on the twist of uke's wrist by twisting his hand counterclockwise.

  • Yonkyo  –  It is based on controlling uke's wrist, coupled with a strong pressure with the thumb on the radial nerve.

  • Gokyo  –  A lateral control technique generally applied against knife attacks. It applies to exert pressure on the elbow and the back of the hand of uke, previously controlled and directing a linearly pressure from the elbow to the hand, and from the hand to the elbow.

The techniques may be summarized in those following categories:

The first two categories include over 700 different movements, which are the basis of all movements of defense. They serve to discard a hand grip (teodoki), to throw the opponent by forcing its members (rofuse), or to immobilize him by forcing his joints (kansetsu-gaeshi).

A correct hand grip should prevent uke to move against the thumb of the one who applies the technique (tori). If the grip includes the base of uke's thumb, this prevents a rotational movement within the grip. Opposing uke's thumb with the little finger allows a firm grip with the whole palm.

There are many variations for each technique, which can be used against various different attacks. Many Aikido's techniques can be performed either as throwing (Nage-waza) or as pins (Katame-waza), depending on the situation.

Some techniques that are included in those categories:

Katame Waza
Ikkyo Nikyo Sankyo Irimi nage osae
Yonkyo Gokyo Hiji kime osae
Kote gaeshi osae Shiho nage osae Ude garami
Nage Waza
Irimi nage Kaiten nage Kote gaeshi Kokyu nage
Sumi otoshi Aiki otoshi Koshi nage Kubi ate mae kokyu nage
Ago ate Tenshi nage Juji garami Shiho nage
Sumi otoshi Ude kime nage Kokyu ho
Ukemi Waza
Mae ukemi Ushiro ukemi Yoko ukemi Mae kaiten
Ushiro hanten ukemi Ushiro kaiten Yoko hanten ukemi Yoko kaiten
Mae yoko kaiten Mae ushiro kaiten Tobi koshi Tobi ukemi

A more complete list of the techniques for each fighting situation:

1- Shomen uchi
Ikkyo Nikyo Sankyo Yonkyo
Gokyo Irimi nage Kote gaeshi Kaiten nage
2- Yokomen uchi
Ikkyo Nikyo Sankyo Yonkyo
Gokyo Irimi nage Kote gaeshi Kaiten nage
Udekime nage Koshi nage
3- Katate dori
Ikkyo Nikyo Sankyo Yonkyo
Gokyo Irimi nage Kote gaeshi Kaiten nage
Udekime nage Koshi nage
4- Ryote dori
Kokyuho Nikyo Sankyo Yonkyo
Irimi nage Kote gaeshi
5- Ryokata dori
Ikkyo Nikyo Sankyo Yonkyo
Ai Hanmi handachi waza
1- Katate dori
Ikkyo Katate dori nikyo Katate dori sankyo Katate dori iriminage
Katate dori kotegaeshi Katate dori shiho nage Katate dori kaiten nage Katate dori sumi otoshi
Katate dori kokyu nage
2- Ryote dori
Ryote dori nikkyo Ryote dori irimi nage Ryote dori shiho nage Ryote dori kokyu nage
Katate dori kotegaeshi Katate dori shiho nage Katate dori kaiten nage Katate dori sumi otoshi
Katate dori kokyu nage
3- Ushiro waza-Ryokatadori
Ushiro ryokata dori ikkyo Ushiro ryokata dori nikyo Ushiro ryokata dori sankyo Ushiro ryokata dori kotegaeshi
Ushiro ryokata dori kokyu nage
Tachi waza
1- Aihanmi katatedori
Aihanmi katate dori ikkyo Aihanmi katate dori nikyo Aihanmi katate dori sankyo Aihanmi katate dori yonkyo
Aihanmi katate dori iriminage Aihanmi katate dori kotegaeshi Aihanmi katate dori shiho nage Aihanmi katate dori udekimenage
Aihanmi katate dori koshinage Aihanmi katate dori sumi otoshi Aihanmi katate dori kokyu nage
2- Katate dori
Katate dori ikkyo Katate dori nikyo Katate dori sankyo Katate dori yonkyo
Katate dori iriminage Katate dori kotegaeshi Katate dori shiho nage Katate dori kaiten nage
Katate dori sumi otoshi Katate dori hijikimeosae Katate dori udekimenage Katate dori udegarami
Katate dori kokyu nage
3- Kata dori
Kata dori ikkyo Kata dori nikyo Kata dori sankyo Kata dori yonkyo
Kata dori iriminage Kata dori kokyu nage
4- Muna dori
Muna dori ikkyo Muna dori nikyo Muna dori sankyo Muna dori yonkyo
Muna dori shiho nage Muna dori kokyu nage
5- Ryote dori
Ryote dori ikkyo Ryote dori nikyo Ryote dori sankyo Ryote dori yonkyo
Ryote dori iriminage Ryote dori kotegaeshi Ryote dori shiho nage Ryote dori udekimenage
Ryote dori tenchinage Ryote dori koshinage Ryote dori kokyu nage
6- Ryokata dori
Ryokata dori ikkyo Ryokata dori nikyo Ryokata dori sankyo Ryokata dori yonkyo
Ryokata dori iriminage Ryokata dori aikiotoshi Ryokata dori kokyu nage
7- Katate ryote dori
Katate ryote dori ikkyo Katate ryote dori nikyo Katate ryote dori sankyo Katate ryote dori iriminage
Katate ryote dori kotegaeshi Katate ryote dori shiho nage Katate ryote dori kokyuho Katate ryote dori kokyu nage
Katate ryote dori koshinage Katate ryote dori udekimenage Katate ryote dori jujigarami
8- Chudan tsuki
Chudan tsuki ikkyo Chudan tsuki sankyo Chudan tsuki iriminage Chudan tsuki kotegaeshi
Chudan tsuki shiho nage Chudan tsuki kaiten nage Chudan tsuki kokyu nage Chudan tsuki udekimenage
Chudan tsuki hijikimeosae Chudan tsuki ushiro kiriotoshi
9- Jodan tsuki
Jodan tsuki ikkyo Jodan tsuki sankyo Jodan tsuki iriminage Jodan tsuki kotegaeshi
Jodan tsuki shiho nage Jodan tsuki kaiten nage Jodan tsuki kokyu nage Jodan tsuki udekimenage
10- Shomen uchi
Shomen uchi ikkyo Shomen uchi nikyo Shomen uchi sankyo Shomen uchi yonkyo
Shomen uchi gokyo Shomen uchi iriminage Shomen uchi kotegaeshi Shomen uchi shiho nage
Shomen uchi kaiten nage Shomen uchi kokyu nage
11- Yokomen uchi
Yokomen uchi ikkyo Yokomen uchi nikyo Yokomen uchi sankyo Yokomen uchi sankyo
Yokomen uchi gokyo Yokomen uchi iriminage Yokomen uchi kotegaeshi Yokomen uchi shiho nage
Yokomen uchi udekimenage Yokomen uchi kokyu nage
12- Katadori menuchi
Kata dori menuchi ikkyo Kata dori menuchi nikyo Kata dori menuchi sankyo Kata dori menuchi shiho nage
Kata dori menuchi udekimenage Kata dori menuchi koshinage Kata dori menuchi kotegaeshi Kata dori menuchi iriminage
Kata dori menuchi kokyu nage
13- Mae geri
Irimi nage

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