Striking techniques are usually executed with a heavy bag, or with a punching/kicking target and a kick punching pad when more precision is required.
Depending on the federation, the uniform is a T-shirt with black or white slacks. A keikogi may be also used. Personal protective equipment and padded floors are included.
Initially, the practitioner learns the basic techniques of self defense. At a more advanced stage, close combat and military combat techniques are taught to neutralize an opponent quickly and effectively.
The trainings seek to simulate various possible situations.
Beginners start learning the 360 degree defense, an exercise created to enhance the peripheral vision by defending any circular attack, and defenses against chokes, as they are considered the most immediate threat.